Particles are auxiliary words in a language that do not describe or refer to a specific object or action. Rather, particles often mark grammatical structures and/or show how other words within a sentence relate to each other. Many particles are closely related to adverbs or conjunctions.

Some particles are extremely flexible in their meaning and can also serve other functions within a sentence, especially as conjunctions or adverbs. For example, the word דִּי can function as either a relative particle or a conjunction; and there are others as well.


The classification of these words (i.e. words called “particles” in this grammar) is a subject of much debate among Hebrew linguists. This is true even for particles which have a clear meaning and function. Other parsing systems may have different names for these groups of particles, may have different groupings, or may even parse an individual particle as another kind of word such as a noun, an adverb, a conjunction, or others.

Particles are sometimes paired together (or with conjunctions) to form compound conjunctions. Compound conjunctions are best understood as a single unit with its own range of meanings which may or may not overlap with the meanings of the individual particles themselves. When in doubt, it is recommended to consult and dictionary or lexicon to determine whether any particular occurrence of a particle stands alone or as part of a compound conjunction.


The parsing system used by this grammar identifies the following categories of particles:

Affirmation particle

These particles usually convey a sense of “affirmation of” or “addition to” some idea within the sentence. In English, they are commonly translated using words such as “yes” or “also” or “even” or “really”, etc.

Definite Article

Demonstrative particle

These particles focus the attention of the reader/listener to the word, phrase, or sentence that immediately follows. In English, they are commonly translated using words such as “See!” or “Look!” or “Behold!”, etc.

The direct object marker is used only once in Biblical Aramaic.

Exhortation particle

Exhortation particles are used to emphasize or strengthen a request or command. They are often left untranslated in English.


These particles are exclamations of emotion. In English, they are commonly translated using words such as “Oh!” or “Woe!” or “Aha!”, etc.

Interrogative particle

This prefix indicates that the sentence is a question and not a statement.

Negative particle

These particles negate some word in the sentnce, usually a verb or adjective.

Relative particle

These particles introduce a relative clause or phrase, often more fully describing a preceding noun or verb.